ICAR â€ Indian Veterinary Research Institute ( IVRI ) PhD Entrance Examination Exam Syllabus - 2015 :
For Ph. D Courses
Animal Biochemistry [Code: BCT]
Scope and importance of Biochemistry in animal science. Cell structure and functions. Techniques of cell fractionation, Ultraâ€centrifugation and electron microscopy. Chemistry and biological significance of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, and hormones. Enzymes, chemistry, kinetics, mechanism of action and regulation. Metabolic inhibitors with special reference to antibiotics and insecticides. Subâ€unit structure of macromolecular and supraâ€molecular systems. Chemistry of antigens and antibodies and molecular basis of immune reaction. Separation of macromolecules of biological significance, their isolation, purification, and characterization. Radioimmuno assay and other binding essays. Calorimtery, spectro â€ photometry, chromatography and electrophoresis, Isotopic methods.
Bioenergetics and biological oxidation; Digestion of food, its absorption and energy metabolism in ruminants and nonruminants. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids. Bio Synthesis of Proteins and nucleic acids. Regulations of gene expression Chemistry of respiration and gas transport. Water and electrolyte metabolism. Nutritional needs for maintenance, growth and production. Significance of calorie proteins and essential amino acids. Deficiency diseases, metabolic disorders and clinical biochemistry. Metabolism of specialised tissues. Connective tissue, nervous tissue, muscle, blood, cartilage and bone and mammary tissue; Endocrine glands, Biosynthesis of hormones and their mechanism of action. Fundamental principles of human nutrition. Nutritional significance of animal products. Environmental factors like heat, cold, radiation and environmental pollutants.
Animal Biotechnology (Code: BTY)
Cell biology, Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineeringâ€The structure of animal cell, organization of the cytoplasm, cell organization of the cytoplasm, cell organelles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleolus and subâ€nuclear structures, molecular organization of cell membrane and transport across cell membrane, cellâ€division and cell cycle, control of proliferation, cell to cell signalling, cell receptors, cell transformation, characteristics of tumour cells, oncogenes and their proteins.
Packaging of DNA and eukaryotic chromosome, organization of genes on chromosome, pseudogenes, eukaryotic genome sequestered in organelles and organelles expressing their own genes, mitochondrial genome in mammals, mammalian satellite DNA, Mobile genetic element, tandem gene clusters, Promoters, RNA processing and RNA splicing.
Gene structure, organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome nucleases, DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination, RNA biosynthesis, genetic code, ribosomes, mRNA, regulation and control of transcription.
Transcription initiation and termination in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, processing of rRNA and tRNA editing.
Purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids, synthesis of nucleic acids, importance of nucleic acids and nucleoproteins. In vitro DNA synthesis, oligonucleotides, role of DNA ligases, DNA and RNA polymerases of eukaryotes and prokaryotes and their mode of action, regulatory proteins that affect RNA polymerase, functional promoters RNA replicase and polynucleotide kinase, reverse transcriptase; protein biosynthesis, ribosomes and the site of protein synthesis, RNA, amino acid activation for protein synthesis, regulation and control of translation and post translational modification.
Virus replication, description of major groups of DNA and RNA viruses, oncogenic viruses, animal viruses commonly used in molecular biology, recombination in bacteria, fungi and viruses, transformation, conjugation and transduction, molecular mechanism of spontaneous and induced mutations, siteâ€directed mutagenesis.
Isolation and purification of DNA from prokaryotes and eukaryotes, DNA fingerprinting, RFLP, restriction enzymes, DNA cloning, cloning vectors, production of recombinant plasmids, construction of genomic and cDNA libraries, identification of specific clones, southern/northern blotting techniques, polymerase chain reaction, nucleic acid probes and nucleic acid hybridization, radioisotopes and their handling, recombinant DNA technology applications in animal health and production, biosafety, identification and isolation of important genes, gene transfer in eukaryotes, techniques of gene transfer.
Animal tissue culture and Hybridoma technologyâ€Cell culture techniques, culture of different tissues and organs and its applications, maintenance and preservation of cell culture, nutritional requirements of cells, replica plating, In situ hybridization in cells and microâ€manipulation.
Somatic cell hybrids in gene analysis of animal cells, theory of monoclonal antibody production, immunization of mice; myeloma cell lines and their maintenance , cryopreservation of clones, cell fusion, screening assaysâ€ELISA, IFAT, RIA, subcloning, expansion of clones, In vitro and in vivo production of monoclonal antibodies, isotyping and binding of Mabs, application of Mabs in diagnostics.
Embryo transfer technologyâ€Folliculogenesis, superovulation, hormonal control of ovulation, fertilization and embryo development, collection of embryos (surgical/nonsurgical), embryo transfer, oocyte maturation in vitro, sperm capacitation, spermâ€oocyte interaction, in vitro fertilization, in vitro and in vivo development of embryos; factors affecting embryo development in vitro, and embryo culture, embryo freezing, sexing, bisection and blastomere cloning of embryos, production of transgenic animals.
Biophysics and Bioprocess technologyâ€General structure of proteins, enzymes and coenzymes in protein function, membrane proteins, glycoproteins and glycolipids; physicochemical characterization of proteins, classification of proteins and organizationof peptides and proteins, conformation of polypeptides (protein) chain, protein folding; protein extraction from biological samples and their estimation, purification of proteins and electrophoretic analysis including western blotting. Structure and classification of amino acids, physicoâ€chemical properties and analysis of amino acids; structure and functions of nucleic acids, structural and chemical features of various types of DNA and RNA, physicochemical properties of DNA and RNA; microbial fermentation process, production of biomass, seperation and purification methods, modification of specific products, continuous processing, immobilization methods for enzymes and cells, specific application of bioprocess technology in veterinary science.
Animal Genetics & Breeding [Code: AGB]
Overview of Genetics
History and development of genetics. Cell division and cell cycle; Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Concept of gene. Mendelism and its deviation, Multiple alleles, gene interaction, linkage and crossing over. Penetrance and expressivity. Inheritance of sex linked, sex limited and sex influenced traits. Mutations, lethal genes; Gene modifiers. Sex determination and differentiation.
Individual versus population. Gene and genotypic frequencies and factors affecting them: Hardy Weinberg equilibrium; Change in gene and genotypic frequencies due to systematic processes (mutation, migration & selection) and dispersive processes Balance between mutation and selection. Idealized population, Effective population size. Inbreeding, Coâ€ancestry, regular system of inbreeding, Path coefficient. Inbreeding depression and Heterosis
Continuous variation. Values and means: population mean, average effect, breeding value, dominance deviation, interaction deviation. Variance and its components: additive and dominance variance, interaction variance, environmental variance. Genotype x environment interaction, Genetic slippage. Resemblance between relatives: Offspring and one parent, offspring and mid parent, halfâ€sibs, fullâ€sibs. Concepts of heritability, repeatability, phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations; Methods of their estimation, uses, possible biases and precision of estimates. Threshold characters and estimation of their genetic parameters. Genetic assimilation. Response to selection and its prediction, selection differential and intensity of selection. Measurement of response and realized heritability. Selection differential and intensity of selection. Short term and long term selection: Asymmetry of selection response and selection limit.
Inheritance of economic characters in livestock including poultry and genetic improvement programmes
Economic traits and their inheritance in different livestock species and poultry, Genetic improvement programs of livestock and poultry in India. Different mating systems and their phenotypic and genetic consequences. Basis of Selection, Methods of selection. Different methods of sire evaluation. Prediction of breeding values of sires under various milk recording schemes. Genetic improvement programmes for growth, production, reproduction and diseases resistance of livestock and poultry. Genetic divergence, general and specific combining ability; recurrent and reciprocal recurrent selection. Breeding plans under different agro climatic zones of India and constraints in their implementation. Crossbreeding Programmes in India. Role of artificial insemination/ ONBS/ MOET technology in animal breeding. Bull Mother Farms.
Animal genetic resources and its conservation
Origin, history and utilization of Domestic animal diversity in India. Present status and flow ofAnimal Genetic Resources and its contribution to lively hood security. Methodology for characterization of livestock and poultry breeds through systematic surveys. Uniqueness of breeds, social, cultural and economic aspects of the owners/ communities rearing specific breeds. Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and evolutionary relationship among breeds/ species. Concept of conservation, inâ€situ and exâ€situ conservation, models of conservation, priorities of breeds for conservations, National and International strategies for conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Status, opportunities and challenges in conservation of AgNR. IPR issues pertaining to animal genetic resources. Registration of livestock breeds and protection of livestock owner’s rights in India.
Structure and properties of nucleic acids. Nucleic acid as genetic material. Central dogma, DNA replication/repair and recombination; genetic code; Transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Genome organization, Regulation of gene expression, Genomic imprinting, rDNA technology, Molecular biology techniques and their application, Gene mapping: Genetic and physical, QTL mapping , DNA markers and their application, Marker Assisted selection, Marker Assisted Introgression, GWAS, Sequencing including Next Generation Sequencing, RNAi technologies and their application. Transgenesis.
Basic and fine structure of chromosome, Organization and types of chromosomes, Chromosomal profiles of various livestock species, Chromosomal aberrations, Karyotyping and chromosomal bandings (C, G, Q, R, NOR, High resolution), Chromosome painting, Artificial chromosome, Mosaicism and chimarism, Inâ€ situ hybridization techniques and their applications. Importance of cytogenetics in improvement of livestock species.
Immune response and genetic factors influencing the immune response to pathogens, Immune response (IR) genes (MHC and Nonâ€MHC), Hostâ€pathogen interactions and genetic basis of disease resistance.
Bioinformatics in Animal Genetics & Breeding
Definition; Scope of bioinformatics in Animal Genetics and Breeding. Concept of data base and computational biology. Biological database: definition, types and description. Introduction to NCBI: Literature, Entrez, nucleotide and genome specific resources; Data mining. Tools for sequence analysis, 3D structure and similarity. Different softwares pertaining to application of molecular biology in animal genetics and breeding.
Statistical methods in Animal Genetics and Breeding
Probability and distribution. Concept of univariate and multivariate models. Analysis of segregation â€ Detection and estimation of linkage for quantitative characters. Multiple correlation, Simple and multiple regression. Diallel and partial diallele crossing. Matrix algebra and their types. Basic concepts statistical inferences and balanced experimental design. Least squares ANOVA: Nonâ€orthogonality of data, Least squares constant and data adjustment. Concept of Baysean statistics and its application in Animal Genetics & Breeding. General linear models: fixed, random and mixed models. Generalized and weighted least squares, Estimation of fixed effects in one and two way classification with or without interactions. Estimation of variance components of random effects using least squares, maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood methods. Concept of BLUP and BLUE, Different Henderson’s Models, Softwares for estimation of variances. Nested and cross classification of data. Multivariate Techniques and their application: D2 statistics,Fisher’s discriminant function
Small Laboratory Animal Breeding
Breeding colonies of Mice, Rats, Hamster, Guinea Pigs and Rabbits. Selection and Mating Methods/system: Monogamous, polygamous and others. Development of genetically controlled laboratory animals: Rules for nomenclature, Inbred strains, Outbred stocks, Mutant stock, Recombinant Inbred strains, Transgenic strains. Gene targeting and production of gene knock out animals. Genetic control and monitoring, Record keeping.Ethics and legislations of Laboratory animal use
Animal Nutrition [Code: ANT]
General Nutrition: Carbohydrates, proteins and fats, their digestion and metabolism, Protein value of feed, measure of protein quality, application of protein quality in feeding practices and supplementary value of proteins; Intake and utilization of energy and nutrients of feeds. Essential fatty acids and their role in lipogenesis in relation to nutrition. Requirement of energy, protein, minerals (macro and micro). Vitamins and additives for poultry and pigs; proteinâ€energy interâ€relationship, comparative digestion of nutrients in various species.
Feeds and animals body composition; function of water in animal body; metabolism and utilization of nutrients (carbohydrates; fats; proteins, nonâ€protein nitrogen, minerals and vitamins); rumen digestion and metabolism; effect of different feeds on rumen microbial activity. Classification of bacteria and protozoa, influence of various factors effecting the microbial activity. Maintenance of continuous fermentation system and a consideration of its limitation. Factors affecting rumen development; nonâ€protein nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. Animal feeds and fodders, quality of forage related to production, various schemes of partitioning carbohydrates; limitation of the Weende methods of forage analysis; detergent method of feed analysis; chemical and biological evaluation of feeds and forages including in vitro digestibility trials; study of animal energetics and basic description of animals relative to the requirements of energy and protein; role of antibiotics, hormones and other biostimulators; importance of trace minerals in ruminant nutrition and their relationship with vitamins and hormones.
Applied Nutritionâ€Feeding standards, their evolution and significance, feeding standards as hypothetical rations; feeding standards as indispensable guides, protein, vitamin and mineral supplements; translation of feeding standards in meal mixture specification, preparation of mixed mineral supplements; flexible formula for nonâ€ruminant meal mixtures, creep rations for piglets, quality control of feedstuffs, ISI standard; feed cost of nonâ€ruminant production; efficiency of nonâ€ruminants for feed conversion into animal products.
Statistical design and evaluation of feeding trials; Nutrient requirement of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats at various stages of growth, production and reproduction; present feeding standards and their limitations; factors affecting the nutritional requirements of ruminants; nutrients and their metabolism with reference to production and composition of milk, meat and wool; Relation of feed value to its chemical composition; nutritional factors affecting the quality and quantity of milk, meat and wool; inputâ€output relationship and feed conversion efficiency for different traits; methods and procedures used in formulating economically balanced rations, calf starters, efficiency of feed conversion into animal products; agro industrial byâ€products; their feeding value and incorporation in meal mixtures; supply and demand of animal feeds in the country.
Livestock Production & Management (Code: LPM)
General concept of livestock production and management in Indian agroclimatic and socio â€ economic conditions; Impact of livestock farming in Indian agriculture; Breeds, population and production statistics of various livestock species i.e. cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and pigs in India and their comparison with world statistic; various livestock development project programmes and their performance; role of livestock farming in poverty alleviation among rural poors.
Concepts of livestock housing under tropical and temperate climate adaptation and acclimatization; thermoregulation, heat tolerance of domestic animals; heat stress and summer management of livestock; types of animal housing; detail of loose housing for dairy cattle and buffaloes; space requirements for various categories of livestock in different housing Systems.
Production and reproduction management of different species of livestock; lactation management; physiology of lactation and milk secretion; concept of machine milking in dairy cattle and buffaloes.
Labour requirement for different farm operations of various species of livestock farms; animal transportation and its regulations; knowledge of various livestock farm equipment and their maintenance.
Livestock behaviour and performance; application of knowledge of livestock behavior for the effective management of various species of livestock; concept of livestock behaviours and welfare measures; classification of livestock behaviours.
Specific management practices for various species of livestock; rearing young and growing stock; management of milch, dry and pregnant stock; management of breeding stock; concept of mixed farming.
Feeding management of various livestock species; health care and management of livestock; preventive measures to be taken in livestock farms. Importance of bullock power in Indian agriculture; bioâ€gas production; utilisation and waste management of livestock farms; livestock insurance; livestock project planning and financing; role of cooperatives for livestock development.
Livestock Products Technology [Code: LPT]
Composition: Meat, milk, fish, poultry and eggs; Technology of processing and preservation of livestock products; methods and equipment; Methods of processing and storage of meat and meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and poultry meat; Industrial food preservation, refrigeration, freezing, freeze drying, dehydration, canning radiopasteurization, chemical: additives, curing, smoking, cooking of meat products. Nutritional, chemical organoleptic and microbiological quality of animal foods; Evaluation and maintenance of quality and wholesomeness; Factors affecting quality of foods. Postmortem aspect of muscle as meat: Ageing of meat; histological and chemical changes; Tenderization and other uses of proteoloytic enzymes; Production of protein hydrolysate and other processed foods. New product developments.
Processing and utilization of various animal byâ€products. Slaughterâ€house offal, methods of utilization, blood hides and skins, bones, horns and hooves, wool, hair and feathers, glands casings and other minor byâ€products; Animal byâ€product plant, planning, sanitation methods of operation. Marketing, Livestock production and supply characteristics; meat consumption and related demands; types of markets and trends in marketing livestock products and byâ€products; wholesale retail, future trends; consumer education and awareness, Grades and grading and quality control; regulatory and inspection measures, I.S.I. standards. Corporate bodies in regulating markets, marketing boards, internal trade and development of international market for livestock products; Economics of production; processing, preservation and distribution.
Origin and source of animal foods, Lay out construction, designing, organisation, maintenance and management of abattoirs, Preslaughter care and slaughtering techniques for different kinds of meat animals and birds. Emergency slaughter; Elements of meat hygiene; Anteâ€mortem and postmortem inspection; condemnation and destruction of unit material; Physical and chemical characteristics of meat tissue and principal organs. Facilities relating to sanitation in plant operation. Adulteration and misrepresentation of meat; Biochemical and deteriorative changes in meat, State municipal and other regulations pertaining to meat trade, Bacterial, parasitic and other meat borne infections and infestations; Spoilage of meat and meat products, Regulation and implication of chemical additives used in meat, Sanitary standards for meat packing plants and meat stalls. Labeling and inspection of processed meat, foods; Meat products order.
Poultry Science [Code: PSC]
Genetics and Breedingâ€Breeds and breed characteristics; Mendelian traits in poultryâ€Its inheritance and usefulness; Economically important poultry inheritance; Gene action influencing them. Population genetics and path coefficients affecting such traits; heritability and Genetic correlationsâ€their computation and application; Selectionâ€natural, artificial, directive, disruptive, stabilizing individual, size and dam family, sib selection, progeny testing, combined selections; Construction of selection indices utilizing various economics traits’, Restricted selection indices; Closed flock selection versus innerâ€population selection, recurrent and reciprocal recurrent selection in poultry; part record versus full record selection response to selection plateae; Control populationâ€its necessity and formation; Mating systems and their comparative efficiency in realizing response to selection; Inbreedingâ€its concept, measurement and effects; Development; evaluation and maintenance of inbred lines in poultry; Diallel crosses; Estimation of general and specific combining abilities, material effects; sex linked effects and heterosis.
Genotype or environment interactions: poultry; industry in Indiaâ€its segmentâ€Commercial hybridization; evaluation of test crosses; Random Sample test, practical breeding programme for broilers and layers; Dwarf gene and its usefulness in broiler and laying hen breeding. Selection for disease resistance; Blood groups; Biochemical polymorphism and their usefulness in poultry; Behavioural geneticsâ€its importance.
Avian Nutritionâ€Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acidsâ€classification and properties, vitamins and minerals, properties, functions, deficiency state, source, requirements, feed additivesâ€properties and functions.
Energyâ€Partition, Systems determination, evaluation of different system, heat increment, Metabolizable energyâ€ utilization for growth and egg production, responses to energy restriction by growing chicken and layers; Proteinsâ€Essential and critical aminoacids, interâ€relationship among aminoacids, responses to lysine, methionine (+cystine) restriction by growing chicken and layers; Proteinsâ€evaluation of quality by chemical, enzymatic, microbial and biological methods. Nutrient requirementâ€Methods of expression, factors affecting varying feed intake and nutrient intake, factors varying the nutrient requirement. Various standards for nutrient requirements.
Feedsâ€Sources of energy and nutrients; toxic constituents of feeds and methods of detoxification, supplementary value of food proteins, agroindustrial byâ€products, forest wastes and animal by products; Feeds formulationâ€Principles and methods; feed formulation for different classes of poultry, high energy feeds, nutrition of breeders, nutrition of caged birds, practical limitations, least cost poultry diets; Feeding systemsâ€ Methods; evaluation of different methods of feeding chicken.
Avian Physiologyâ€Digestion, metabolism of carbohydrates; fats proteins; physiology of growth; Female reproduction, egg formation and factors influencing egg formation and production. Male reproduction and factors influencing fertility, Embroynic development; Role of endocrine glands ; Respiration; regulation of body temperature; Physiological changes due to stress. Climatic factors and its influence on birds.
Avian Products Technologyâ€Commercial egg and meat production; Egg structure and chemical composition; Grading of eggs and ISI standards; Internal quality of egg components and their nutritive value; Poultry dressing plants; steps in dressing and processing of chiceken; Dressing yields; Cold storage of eggs; egg products; meat and meat products; Evaluation of meat qualityâ€Physical, chemical and organoleptic; Utilization of poultry processing waste; feathers, offals, shanks etc., Differet products of egg and meat; Preparation of egg powder and its utility. Microbial spoilage and methods of preservation of egg and meat; Methods of packing, transportation and marketing of eggs and meat.
Avian Healthâ€signs of disease outbreak and procedures for early diagnosis; principles of disease control viz. vaccination schedules; treatments; Sanitary and quarantine measures, other precautionary methods during outbreaks; Carcass disposal; Important Bacterial diseases Viz. Pullorum Disease, Fowl Typhoid and Paratyphoid, Fowl Cholera, Infectious Coryza, Chronic respiratory disease, Spirochaetosis, Ulcerative enteritis; Important Viral diseases, Viz. Ranikhet disease, Infectious bronchitis, Infectious Laryngotracheitis, Fowl Pox, Marek’s disease, Avian Leucosis complex, Infectious bursal disease, Avian Encephalemyelitis, Systematic fungal diseases, viz. Apsergillosis (Alfatoxicosis, brooder pneumonia), Thrush (candidiasis). Common parasitic diseases viz. Round worms, Tape worms, External parasites viz. ticks, lice, fleas and mite. Protozoan diseases viz. Coccidiosis, Enterohepatitis and blood protozoan parasites. Disease syndromes viz. egg drop syndrome, fatty liver syndrome, Stress factors.
Incubation and Hatchingâ€ Principles of incubation, collection and storage of fertile eggs; factors influencing fertility and hatchability; Hatchery, sanitation and maintenance, Utilization and disposal of hatchery wastes; Preâ€requisites of good hatchery, layout and equipment required; Housingâ€Location and site selectionâ€Ideal layout of poultry houses for different systems of rearing, Controlled environment and openâ€sided houses: Types of material used for construction taking into consideration availability and different climatic conditions; Role of cross ventilation and effect of air pollutants and obnoxious gases in poultry houses.
Brooding and Rearing: Principles and methods of brooding Space requirement for housing, feeding and watering. Free range and confinement systems of rearing, cage versus floor and salt systems, advantages and disadvantages; Staking densities their effect on production: Types of cage for Starters; grooves and layers; Effect of artificial light on material and egg formation and production; Types of litter and their characteristics; Litter management and their subsequent utility.
Poultry Housing Equipmentâ€Types of brooders; Feeders, waterers laying nests; chick guards, crates, catching hooks, perches etc.
Common Management Problems: Cage layer fatigue, Fatty liver syndrome, Flightness, Hysteria, Egg eating, cannibolism, Rodent and fly problems. Wet litter and ammonia, dust and air pollutants in the sheds; Replacement of stock, Forced molting. Methods and programmes of molting, culling of layers.
Farm Economicsâ€ Production cost of eggs, Chicken, pullets and broiler, Feasibility reports for setting up small and large layer and broiler units. Poultry industry in India, its growth and futurology.
Veterinary Bacteriology [Code: VBM]
Bacteriologyâ€Classification and nomenclature of bacteria; Structure, function and chemistry of bacterial nuclear apparatus, cytoplasm, intracellular granules, cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, mesosomes, capsule, flagella, fimbriae, endospores, protoplasts, spheroplasts, Forms, involution forms. Bacterial stains, staining and microscopy, Growth and nutritional requirements of bacteria, bacterial enzymes, respiration in bacteria, reproduction and growth phases of bacteria. Effect of Chemical and physical agents and antibiotics. Bacterial variations includâ€ing transduction, transformation and cojugation.
Systematic study of bacteria belonging to genera, Borrelia, Leptospira, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Escherichia, Citrobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Vibrio, Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Actinobacillus, Fusoâ€bacterium, Moraxella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Acholesplasma. General characters, classification and study of important pathogenic fungi.
Veterinary Extension Education [Code: EXT]
Extension education, objectives and principles; Formal and informal extension education; Growth of extension education as a discipline and profession; Extension education in relation to agricultural development: (including Animal Husbandry), Genesis of agricultural development/ rural development programmes in Indiaâ€ leading to the concepts of reorganized extension services and integrated rural development programme. Role of extension education in development programme; Comparative studies of extension education system in selected developed and developing countries.
Extension teaching methods and audioâ€visual aids. Teaching and learning processes in extension education; Extension teaching methods and audioâ€visual aids and their classification; Selection and use of extension methods and audioâ€visual aids; Effective combination of extension teaching methods; Audioâ€visual aids and their role in transfer of technology; Social psychological considerations in use of audioâ€visual aids; Combining and using audioâ€visual aids for effective teaching, Production of low cost audioâ€visual aids.
Programme planning in extension education. Principles and processes; planning process; Methods of identifying needs; Securing participation and bringing coâ€ordination in programme planning process; Importance of Five Year Plan in India; Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Development programmes in action. National demonstrations. Operational research project, and lab to land programme, Evaluation as an integral part of programming.
Extension administration. Nature and characteristics; Extension administration versus general administration; Genesis of agricultural administration with special reference to extension service in India; Principle and theories of administration; Role and function of extension administrations; Factors affecting the extension administration, Organizational
setâ€up for extension services in India including the Training and Visit system at different levels.
Training of extension personnel and farmers. Principles and importance of extension training. Types of training programmes for extension personnel and farmers; Emerging patterns and models of extension training; Factors affecting extension training, Efficacy of training, T & V system its merits and demerits. Methods of identifying training needs. Small group techniques in training. Assessing training effectiveness; Training facilities available in India for different extension personnel and farmers.
Concepts features and designs of various programmes in India, integrated Rural Development (IRD), T&V system of Extension, Drought Prene Aren Programme (DPAP), Small Farmers Development Agencies (SFDA), National Rural Employment Programme (NREP); Extension Programme for Rural Women; Training of Rural Youth for Self employment (TRYSEM); Lab to land Programme (LLP), National Demonstration (ND: Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs); Operational Research Project (ORP) and Farmers Training Centre (FTC)”.
Basic rural Institutions engaged in rural development. Structure and function of rural institutions and process of activating them; Factors influencing their involvements in rural development; Concept and theories of leadership, Identification and training of local leaders, Basic patterns of leaderâ€group relationship in rural society; Role and importance of local leaders in rural development. Rural sociology and social psychologyâ€ their scope and importance in extension work. Concept of human society; characteristics of rural people; Scientific study of human behaviour, Socioâ€phsychological factors in transfer of technology, Theory and principles of social structure; Social interactions and processes; Process of socialization values and norms of rural social system; resulting socioâ€psychological changes in rural society.
Diffusion and adoption of innovation. Models and theories of diffusion and adoption; Process of diffusion and adoption, Adoption process and sources of information; Adoption curveâ€adoptors categories and their characteristics: Factors associated with adoption and rate of adoption; Role of adoption in relation to attributes of innovations; Role of change agents in adoption and diffusion; consequences of adoption of innovations.
Process and media of communication: Models and theories of communication; Nature and importance of communication; Communication process and elements of communication; Fidelity in communication and factors affecting it; Role of mass media in transfer of technology; Effective mediaâ€mix for rural audience; Problems and barriers in communication.
Research and evaluation in extension programmes: Social research and evaluation in extension programmes; Process of scientific researchâ€various designs; Measurement, levels of measurements and corresponding statistical techniques; validity and reliability of measuring devices; Methods of observation and data collection; Techniques of tabulation; analysis of data and report writing; Importance of research and evaluation in extension programmes.
Veterinary Gynaecology & Obstetrics [Code: VGO]
Gynaecologyâ€Functional anatomy of female reproductionâ€Anatomy and preâ€natal and postâ€natal development of the reproductive organs of female farm animals and their specific sexual functions. Functional histology of the female reproductive organs; Physiology of Reproductionâ€Endocrinology of reproduction in females; Hypophysial hormones, Gonadal Steroid hormones, and placental hormones; their chemical structures, functions and mechanism of actions. Prostaglandins and synthetic hormones, hormonal interrelationships; Neuroendocrinology of reproductionâ€Hypothalamus, neurohypoâ€physis and pineal gland, Reproductive life cyclesâ€Foetal and neonatal life; puberty, adult sexuality, aging and fertility; Folliculogenesisâ€egg maturation and Ovulation; Transport and survival of gametes sperm transport in the female reproductive tract, ova pickup and their transport in the oviduct; gamet transport and conception rate; fertilizable life and ageing of egg. Transuterine migration and loss of eggs; Embryonic development in oviduct; Fertilization, Cleavage and implantation; Gestation, Maternal physiology in pregnancy, prenatal physiology and parturition; Anatomy of the udder, mammary growth and lactation, sexual maternal and neonatal behaviour.
Reproductive cyclesâ€Reproductive cycles in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, swine and horses. Puberty; oestrus Ovulation and oestrus Cycles, Breeding and conception. Gestation, parturition. The postâ€partum period. Reproduction efficiency.
Reproductive failureâ€Reproductive failure in female farm animal, ovarian dysfunction, disorders of fertilizations, prenatal mortality, perinatal and neonatal mortality, disorders of gestation, parturition and lactation; sexual health control; diagnosis, prevention and control of different reproductive disorders.
Techniques for improving reproduction efficiencyâ€ Artificial insemination of the female; Induction and synchronization of ovulationâ€Control of ovulation; Clinical methods of inducting ovulation in different farm animals; Synchronization of ovulation; pregnancy diagnosis. Laboratory methodsâ€Pregnancy diagnosis in cow, mare, ewe and sow; Embryo Transferâ€Superovulation, collection of ova, selection of ova for transfer. Transfer of Ova, Synchronization of oestrous between donor and recipientâ€Composition of media for embryos; Storage of embryosâ€maintenance of pregnancy after embryo inâ€vitro maturation of oocytes, inâ€vitro fertilizationâ€potential uses and limitation of embryo transfer and related techniques.
Obstetricsâ€Obstetrical Anatomyâ€Diseases and Accidents during the Gestation Period, Abortion in Cattle, Horses, Swine, Sheep and Goats; Mumification of the Fetus, Fetal Maceration; revention of Conception and induction of Abortion; Extraâ€ uterine pregnancies and fetuses; Dropsy of the fetal membranes and abdominal hernias resulting in hysterocael; Torsion of the uterus;
Vaginocervical prolapse; Paraplagia of pregnancy, Miscellaneous accidents during pregnancy; Parturitionâ€Normal parturition; Artificial interferences in normal parturition; Diseases and care of the newborn, care of the postpartum dam; Dystokiaâ€Cause of dystokia; Diagnosis of various types of dystokia, obstetrical operations for relieving dystokia, Injuries and diseases of the puerperal period; infertilityâ€infertility in the cow; Infectious diseases, Miscellaneous Infestation of the bovine female genital tract; Hormonal disturbances resulting in Infertility; causes; Pathological causes.
The “Repeat Breeder” cow. Management problemsâ€Infertility in the mare, sow, ewe and doe.
Andrology, Seminology and Artificial insemination; Andrology and Seminologyâ€ Functional anatomy of reproduction in male farm animal; Endocrinology and neuroendocrinology of male reproduction; Mechanisms of action of gonadotrophins, Puberty and sexual maturity; Spermatogenesis; Factors affecting spermatogenesis; Passage of sperm through the excurrent ducts; Function of epididymis; Semen and its various components; Metabolism of semen; Sexual behaviourâ€endocrine and neural mechanisms of sexual behaviour; factors affecting sexual behaviour; contribution of gonads and accessory sex glands to semen ejaculate; survival of sperm in vivo, in vitro and the female reproductive tract; fertilizable life of sperm; hereditary, congenital and acquired factors leading to infertility, abnormalities of sperm; Bacteriological aspects of semen and diseases transmissible through semen; sexual health control, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of different types of infertility.
Artificial Inseminationâ€Advantages and limitations; sterilization of artificial insemination equipments; methods of collection of semen; evaluation of semen; principles of sperm preservation; extension of unfrozen semen and extenders used for the same; principles and techniques of freezing of spermatozoa, Storage and transportation of semen; Insemination Techniques; dose, time and site of insemination; conception rates; measures of reproductive efficiency; management and training of males for use in artificial insemination.
Veterinary Immunology [Code: VIM]
Some historical perspectives, basic concepts of immunity, hostâ€parasite relationship, defence mechanism of hosts, types and grades of immunity, local and non specific immunity. Factors influencing immunity. Antigens and their properties, specificity, haptens. Heterophilic antigens and Bacterial toxins, Immunoglobulins, classes of immunoglobulins, their structural and functional properties, comparison of immunoglobulins, immunogenetics, synthesis of antibody. Types of cells in antibody formation, theories of antibody synthesis, mechanism of antigen antibody reactions. Precipitation, complement fixation, ELISA, RIA etc., Allergy, Hypersensitivity, Types of Hypersensitivity, Cellular and Humoral responses, Transplantation, Immunological tolerance, autoimmunity, Tumour immunity, graft rejection, Major Histocompatibility antigens and their significance, Lymphokines, Interferon, Interâ€ leukins etc.
Veterinary Medicine [Code: VMD]
Clinical Examination of Patient: General clinical examination, anamnesis and determining the present status, general examination with regard to signalment of the patient, habitus, skin, conjunctiva, temperature. Special examination of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinoâ€genital, nervous, muscular and lymphatic systems. Special examination with regard to locomotion, allergic and serological tests, examination of blood, urine, faeces and special diagnostic procedures like passage of stomach tube, catheters, exploratory puncture, rectal examination, use of ophthalmoscope and radiological examination.
Diseases of digestive system and pertitoneum: stomatitis, parotitis, pharyngitis, paralysis of pharyax, paralysis of oesophagus, obstruction of oesophagus, oesophagitis, dilation of oesophagus, vomiting, impaction of rumen and tympany, traumatic reticulitis, impaction of omasum, omasitis, abomasitis, displacement of abomasum, indigestion in ruminants, constipation, Gastritis, enteritis, obstruction of intestines, diarrhea, dysentery and colic in equines. Peritonitis, ascites, volvulus, intusussepition.
Diseases of liver and pancreas: Jaundice, hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatic abscess, pancreatitis. Respiratory system: Rhinitis, epistaxis, laryngitis, tracheitis bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary oedema, pneumonia, pleurisy, hydrothorax, and pneumothorax. Circulatory system: pericarditis, myocarditis, endocarditits, hypertrophy of heart, dilatation of heart, heart failure, bradycardia, tachycardia, Diseases of the blood vessels, Diseases of the blood and blood forming organs: Dehydration, haemorrhage, shock, oedema anaemia, leukaemia, leucopaenia and abnormalities of acid base balance. Diseases of the spleen and lymphnodes.
Urinoâ€genital system; Albuminuria, chronic haematuria in cattle, nephritis pyelonephrits, cystitis, urolithiasis, retention of urine, paralysis of urinary bladder, urethritis and prostatitis.
Skin and Muscular system: Pruritis, urticaria, pityriasis, eczema, dermatitis, dematophytosis, dematosis, keratosis, hyper keratosis, para keratosis, erythema, psoriasis, pyoderma, acanthosis, dermatomycosis, elephantiasis, alopecia, ecthyma, acne, impetigo, seborrhoea, myositis, muscular atrophy and muscular dystrophy.
Nervous system: Meningitis, encephalitis, sunstroke, heat stroke, lightning stroke, vertigo, epilepsy, eclampsia, chorea, spinal meningitis, neuritis.
Occular diseases: Conjunctivitis, Keratitis, iritis, cataract, iridocyclitis glaucoma, corneal opacity, irriditis, amaurosis, retinitis, uvetis.
Diseases of ear: Otitis externa, otitis media, otitis interna, otorrhoea, labyronthitis, perforated drum, tympanitis.
Veterinary Jurisprudence: Legal duties of veterinarian, examination of animals for soundness, examination of injuries, postmortem examination, causes of sudden death in animals, collection and dispatch of material for chemical analysis, detection of frauds, evidence procedure in court, legal enactment in I.P.C. relating to animals, provincial and central acts relating to livestock, code of conduct and ethics of Veterinarians.
Common infectious diseases of livestock: Mastitis, Colibacillosis, Tetanus, Enterotoxaemia, B.Q., H.S., Pratuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, Swine erysipelas, Listeriosis, Glanders, CCPP, CBPP, Tyzzer’s disease, Coccidiosis in rabbit, Parasitic gastro enteritis, Fascioliasis, Amphistomiasis, Schistosomiasis, Filariosis, Gid, Trypanosomiasis, Babesiosis, Thilerosis, mange and mites. FMD, Ephimeral fever, PPR, IBR, Rabies, ICH, CD, Parvo, Contagious ecthyma, Swine fever, Blue tongue, Infectious equine anaemia, Equine viral arteritis, Anaplasmosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky mountain spoted fever, Qâ€fever.
Production and deficiency disease of farm animals: Parturient paresis, Downers cow syndrome, eclampsia, Hypomagnesaemia tetany, PPH, Azoturia, Ketosis, Diabeties, Hypo and hyperthyroidism, Deficiency diseases of vitamins and minerals.
Chemical poisons and bio toxicants: Lead, Mercury, Arsenic, Selenium, Fluoride, Nitrate and nitrite, Organ phosphorus and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Snake bite, Lantana poisoning, Bracken fern poisoning.
Special Therapeutic Approaches: Veterinary fluid therapy with fluid, electrolyte, plasma expanders, packed cell transfusions, etc. Clinical assessment of their requirement and doses. Blood transfusion with blood groups in animalsâ€their therapeutic significance. Blood matching methods. Oxygen therapy.
Poultry Disease: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and control of the following diseases of poultry: Newcastle disease, IBD, ILT, mycoplasmosis, coccidiosis, salmonellosis, necrotic enteritis, malabsorption. leucosis. Marek’ disease, mycotoxicosis, avian encephalomyelitis.
Veterinary Parasitology [Code: VPA]
General classification, morphology, life cycle and bionomics of trematodes, cestodes and nematodes belonging to the following families affecting livestock with particular reference to the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, ecology, immunity, control, economic importance and zoonotic importance.
Cestoda (Platyhelminthes)â€Mesocestoididae, Anoplocephalidae, Dilepidiadae, Hymenolepididae, Davaineidae, Taeniidae, Diphyllobothriidae.
Nematoda, (Nemathelminthes), Acanthocephala and Annelidaâ€ Acaridiae, Nanisakidae, Ascaridiidae, Oxyridae, Heterakidae, Rhaditidae, Strongylidae, Trichonematidae, Stephanuridae, Syngamidae, Ancylostomatidae, Amidostomidae, Trichostrogylidae, Ollulanidae, Dictyocaulidae, Metastronglidae, Protostrongylidae, Filaroididae, Spiruridae, Thelaziidae, Accurdidae, Terameridae, Physalophteridae, Gnathostomatidae, Setariidae, Dracunculidae, Trichinellidae, Trichuridae, Dioctophymidae, Polymorhidae, Oligacanthorhychidae, Pachysentidae, Gnathobdellidae.
Recording system, laboratory procedures, planning of control programmes and experiments in the study of helminthiasis in livestock.
Helminthic immunityâ€Hostâ€parasite relationship; Types and grades of immunity mechanism of host resistance, effect of host’s immune reactions on helmiths, antigen antibody system, ntigenic characters of helminths, cellular and humoral factors in immunity to helminths; latent infection and premunity, self cure phenomenon, larva migrans; allergy and allergic reactions; mechanisms of serological manifestation of antigen antibody reaction; immunodiagnosis, immunoelectrophoresis and immunofluorescence.
Veterinary Protozoologyâ€Classification, morphology, nutrition and reproductive processes and patterns, lifeâ€history, transmission, pathogenicity, and control (Prophylactics & therapeutics against important species belonging to the following families and genera):
Trypanosomatidae (Trypanosoma, Leishmania)
Trichomonadidae (Tritrichomonas, Giardia)
Eimeriidaeâ€Coccidia (Eimeria, Isospora, Cryptosporidium, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma)
Haemoproteidae (Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon)
Babesiidae (Babesia); Theileriidae (Theileria), Haemagregarinidae (Hepatozoon).
Symptoms of diseases, caused by these parasites in livestock, and drugs employed in the treatment of such conditions; host parasite relationship; immune responses; immunodiagnosis and immunizing procedures; epizootiology and zoonotic importance.
Veterinary entomologyâ€Classification of arthropoda, with special reference to insects and carines of medical and veterinary importance, morphology, life history, transmission, pathogenecity of the genera and species responsible for injury and disease transmission to livestock in the following groups:
Insectaâ€Phthiraptera (Anoplura and Mallophaga); Hemiptera; Coleoptera; Apahaniptera,; Diptera (Certopogonidae, simuliidae, Psycodiae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Anthomyidae, Tachinidae, Oestridae, Hippoboscidae).
Acarinaâ€Ixodiodae (Argasidae, Isodidae); trombidigormes (Trombiculidae, Pediculoididae, Demodicidae, Cheyletidae, Myobiidae); Sarcoptiformes, Psoroptidae,
Acaridae, Laminosioptidae, Analgesidae, Dermoglyphidae). Pentastomidaâ€Porocephalidae (Porocephaulus, Linguatulaâ€Control of parasitic arthropods and vectors, physical, chemical and biological insecticides and their application; toxicology and antidotes of important insecticides; principles of integrated control.
Veterinary Pathology [Code: VPL]
Etiology of diseases and concept of multipleâ€factor etiology; Predisposing factors of disease; Extrinsic or environmental factors in relation to soil, air, humidity and temperature; Susceptibility and resistance to disease; Intrinsic factors e.g. species, age, sex heredity, Physical agents; Mechanical Injuries, heat, cold, decreased atmospheric pressure, injuries due to light e.g. photosensitization, injuries due to electricity; Chemical agents as causes of disease, Poisoning caused by Exogenous and Endogenous poisons; Microorganisms and animal parasites; Bacteria, fungi and viruses; protozoa, platyhelminthes and nemathelminthes.
Inflammationâ€Macroscopic and microscopic observations, chemical mediators of increased vascular permeability; Chemotaxis and phagocytosis; Adhesions and emigration of leucocytes, sequence of cellular reaction; Formation of abscesses, Defence mechanism and reticuloâ€endothelial system; chronic inflammation; nonâ€suppurative and suppurative granul tomatous reactions; Reaction of blood to injuryâ€Reaction of the plasma; Blood coagulation and retraction of clot, cellular reaction; Haemostasis and thrombosis and subsequent changes in thrombi. Effects of thrombosis and embolism. Haemorrhage and shock; Oedemaâ€ Tissue fluid formation, lymphatic drainage; general fluid balance; Inflammatory oedema, oedema of venous and lymphatic obstruction, cardiac and pulmonary oedema; Feverâ€ Causes of fever, fever producing substances; functions of fever; Degenerative changes and their consequences â€Degenerations and infiltrations; Cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration; fatty changes; glycogenic infiltration; amyloid infiltration; hyaline degeneration; Necrosis, classification and autolysis; Gangrene.
Healingâ€Microscopical changes of healing tissue; Healing of wounds by first intention; formation of granulation tissue; Healing by second intention; Factors influencing would healing; Control of healing process, local and general factors influencing healing; Healing of some special tissues; Mucous membranes, liver, kidneys and urinary passages, respiratory tissue, cartilage, bone, muscle, nervous tissue; Atherosclerosisâ€ Morphology of atherosclerosis, Pathogenesis of the lesions, Chemical constituents of normal and diseased arteries, reactions of intima to injury; the organization of surface deposits; Pathological consequences of chromosomal abnormalityâ€Pathological effects of radiation of higher animalsâ€Acute effects of radiation, histological changes in haemopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Late effects of total radiation; Ageing, leukaemia, carcinogenic effects; Hostâ€parasite relationship. Germ theory of disease, and the relationship between host and parasite; factors determining invasion; barriers to invasion; Types of infectionâ€Pathological features of mycotic, bacterial and viral infections; pathology of infections due to protozoa, platyhelminthes and nemathelminthes; Immunopathology, Hypersensitivity reactionsâ€ Anaphylaxis, cytotoxic antibody reactions, immune complex, Arthus type reaction, delayed hypersensitivity; Hypersensitivity to drugs and chemicals; Autoâ€immune type hypersensitivity reactions; Rejection of transplanted tissues; Immunological deficiency States; Pathology of nutritional diseasesâ€Protein deficiency; carbohydrate deficiency; mineral deficiency; vitamin deficiency; Growth and its disordersâ€Metaplasia; atrophy; hypertrophy; hyperplasia, Nature of tumours, growthâ€Growth etiology, classification, morphology and behaviour of tumours; Benign and malignant tumours in domestic animals, their pathological features and diagnosis.
Functional disturbances, malformations, degeneration, circulatory disturbances, inflammation and pathogenesis of the cardioâ€vascular system. Pathology of haemic and lymphatic system, anaemia; Lymphangitis and lymphadenitis. Circulatory disturbances and inflammation of different parts of the respiratory systems; Aetiology, pathogenesis, classification of specific pneumonia and pneuomoconiosis. Circulatory disturbances and inflammation of different parts of digestive system; congenital abnormalities of intestines; Disturbances of circulation and pigmentation, degeneration, necrosis and cirrhosis of liver; Degeneration and inflammation of different parts of the urinary system; disturbances of growth and inflammation of various parts of genital system including mammary gland. Disturbances of circulation, growth and inflammation of bone and skeletal muscles. Inflammation of meninges, brain and spinal cord. Pathology of the endocrine glands, special sense organs and skin and its appendages. Pathology of bacterial diseases, mycotic infections, viral diseases, PPLO and rickettsial infections, and parasitic diseases.
Veterinary Pharmacology [Code: VPT]
General Pharmacology: Development and scope of pharmacology, sources and nature of drugs, pharmacopoeia and drugs compendia, pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion), principles of drug action (factors modifying drug action, physicochemical basis of drug action, drug receptor interaction, types and sites of drug action etc.) and pharmacoâ€metrics (Principles of bioassay and pharmacological evaluation of different types of drugs, determination of LD50, ED50, organization of screening and drug development).
Drugs Acting on Central Nervous System: General anaesthetics, hypnotics, sedatives, antiâ€convulsants, tranquilizers and other drugs affecting behaviour, (including antipyretics and antiâ€inflammatory drugs) and CNS stimulants including analeptics.
Drugs Acting on Peripheral Nervous System; Adrenergics, antiâ€adrenergics, Cholinergics, antiâ€cholinergics, drugs acting on ganglia, muscle relaxants, (Including central muscle relaxants) and local anaesthetics.)
Drugs acting on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems: Drugs acting on heart, blood vessels, blood pressure, blood (coagulants and anticoagulants) and haemopoietic system. Expectorants, antiâ€tussives and bronchodilators.
Drugs Acting on Digestive System, Stomachics, antacids, carminatives and antizymotics, emetics and antimetics, cathartics, intestinal astringents, and drugs acting on liver, Pharmacology of rumen.
Drugs acting on Endocrine and Reproductive Systems; Pituitary hormones, thyroid hormone, and antithyroid drugs, parathyroid extract, insulin and other antidiabetic drugs, adrenal corticoids and sex hormones, Drugs acting on uterus and drugs used for fertility and contraception.
Drugs Affecting Body Fluids and Electrolytes; Drugs altering fluid balance, Diuretics, antidiuretics, Pharmacology of electrolytes and fluid therapy.
Autacoids: Histamine and antihistaminics, Serotonin, Polypeptides and prostaglandins. General Chemotherapy: Historical development of chemotherapy, General principles of chemotherapy â€selection of antimicrobial agents, combination therapy, mechanism and problem of drug resistance, misuse of chemotherapeutic agents and public health problem.Drug allergy and hypersensitivity.
Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of the following groups of Chemotherapeutic Agents:
(a) Sulfonamides: Gutâ€acting and systematic sulfonamides, Longâ€ acting sulfonamides, Pharmacotherapy with sulfonamides.
(b) Antibiotics: Natural and semisynthetic penicillins; Streptomycin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics (Kannamycin, Gentamycin, neomycin), Tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, microlide antibiotics (erythromycin, oleandomycin, typerothricin). Surface acting antibiotics (polymyxins, bacitracins), Antifungal antibiotics (griseofulvin, nystain, amphotericinâ€B, Hamycin) and other antibioticsâ€linomycin, vancomycin, cephalosporins, colistin, novobiocin. etc.
(c) Antitubercular, antiviral and antineoplastic drugs.
(d) Nitrofurans: Nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone, nitrofurazolidone, etc.
(e) Antiprotozoan drugs: Drugs acting against coccidia, trypanosomes, babesia, theileria, anaplasma , amoeba and plasmodium.
(f) Anthelminitics, Drugs acting against nematodes, cestodes and trematodes.
(g) General Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Halogenated compounds, coal tar derivatives, dyes and sulphur compounds.
General Toxicology: Mechanism of detoxification of poisons, General principles of diagnosis and nonâ€antidotal therapy of poisoning, Principles of antidotal therapy.
Toxicology of inorganic compounds: Arsenic, lead, selenium, molybdenum, fluorine, copper, mercury, nitrate and nitrite and oxalates.
Toxicology of Agroâ€chemicals: Insecticides (organophosphates), chlorinated hydrocarbons and carbamates), fungicides, herbicides and rodenticides.
Toxicology of Poisonous Plants: Cyanogenetic plants, Plants producing photosensitization, teratogenic effect, anticoagulating action, thiamine deficiency. Mycotoxins (ergot alkaloids ,aflatoxins and other mycotoxins). Some other important toxic plants and weeds (Milk weeds, tobacco, castor plant, oleander, nuxvomica, solanum, jimson weed, abrus precatorius etc.)
Toxicology of Industrial contamination, food additives, chemical warfare agents and radioactive substances.
Veterinary Physiology [Code: VPY]
Digestionâ€Control of motility and secretion of alimentary canal; gastric hormones and reflexes in the control of digestive functions; control of rumen motility; digestion in the ruminent and monogastric animals; absorption from rumen and the digestive tract; avian digestion, physiological basis of gastric disorders.
Blood and circulation â€Blood coagulation; haemoglobin and its polymorphism, anaemias, reticuloendothelial system, body defence mechanism and immunogenesis, Electrophysiology of heart, electroâ€cardiography; principles and interpretation; haemodynamics and concerned biophysical principles; neural and humoral control of heart and blood vessels; cardiac output and vascular reflexes; autoregulation mechanisms in the heart, lungs, brain, muscle, kidneys and skin, bloodâ€brain barrier, circulatory shock and hypertension.
Respirationâ€Mechanics of respiration; neural and chemical control of respiration,gaseous transport and exchange; hypoxia, anoxia, hypoâ€barrism and high altitude living; physiology of work and exercise.
Excretionâ€Modern concepts of urine formation; control of renal circulation; secretion and absorption in the renal tubules; regulation of acidâ€base balance by the lungs and the kidneys, hormonal and renel regulation of body fluid and electrolytes balance, renal function in desert animals; physiology of micturation; uraemia and other renal disorders.
Climatologyâ€Physiology of climatic stress: effects of stress on production and reproduction; neural and hormonal regulation of body temperature in homeotherms, mechanism and adaptation; Photoperiodicity and biological rhythm.
Muscle contractionâ€ Muscle types; their intracellular contractile mechanisms, electrophysiology of muscles; neuromuscular junction; excitationâ€contraction coupling, its biochemical and ionic mechanisms, Myopathies.
Nervous Systemâ€Neurons, neurotransmission and neurotransmismitters, Electrophysiology of nerves; synapses, neuronal circuit receptors, reflexes; cerebral cortex, control of motor & sensory functions; Physiology of plain sensory pathway, Hypothalamus, control of endocrine and visceral functions, autonemic nervous system; basal ganglia structures; Limbic system animal instincts and neurophysiology of behaviour, control of food intake, Special senses.
Endocrinologyâ€Hormones, hormone receptors, mechanism of hormones action at cellular and subcellular levels; Hypothalamic and feedâ€back control of hormone secretion. Releasing & inhibiting factors; Pineal gland and its hormones; Hormones of hypophyses and all other endocrine glands; nonâ€conventional hormones; mechanisms of different hormone synthesis; endocrine disorders.
Reproductive Physiologyâ€Hypothalamic and hypophysial control of testicular function, spermatogenesis and androgen secretion; inhibition; control of fertility by epididymis; control of male sexual behaviour, erection,ejaculation, semen production and accessory sex glands, male reproductive disorders.
Control of ovarian function, oestrus, ovulation; C.L. and its role in oestrus cycle and pregnancy; oestrogens, progesterone, relexin and prostaglandins, etc. effect on female genital tract; hormones on oestrus synchronisation and superovulation; female reproductive disorders.
Mechanism of sperm capacitation, sperm and ovum transport,the female genital tract; fertilization, implantion, maintenance of pregnancy and physiology of placenta; Zygote as an endocrine and immunogenic structure.
Physiology of parturition, adrenal corticoids, PGs and oxytocin.
Lactationâ€Hormonal control of mammary gland, growth before puberty, during pregnancy and after parturition; hormonal control of milk letâ€down; control of initiation, maintenance and cessation of lactation; hormone and nutrients in milk production; mammary involution, milk precursors and synthesis of milk conâ€stitutents.
Artificial Inseminationâ€Collection, preservation, transport of semen, semen dilutors; artificial insemination.
Embryo Transferâ€Collection, preservation, transport and transplantation of zygotes, oocyte culture and in vitro fertilization.
Veterinary Public Health [Code: VPH]
Zoonosesâ€Concept and classification of zoonoses, Ecological aspects of zoonoses, Role of diseased and reservoir wild animal hosts. Role of vector and natural habitats of the agents. Human diseases already spread by animals. Animals as agents and vectors of human diseases.
Studies on the epidemiology and control of zoonoses of public health importance caused by viral, rickettsial, bacterial, mycotic and zooâ€parasitic agents.
Meat Hygieneâ€Elements of meat inspection. Slaughter house construction and management. Antemortem inspection, methods of slaughter, carcass dressing and postmortem examination. Handling, storage of fresh meat, Sanitation facilities in plant operations, Deteriorative changes in meat. Meat and Meat Products preparation, Foodâ€borne illness due to meat and meat products, poultry and poultry products.
Milk Hygieneâ€Microbiological methods for hygienic qualities of milk and milk products (pasteurized, sterilized, flavoured milk, cream, butter, curd, cheese, cultured milk, milk powder, condensed and evaporated milk etc.) Cleanliness and sterility of dairy equipments. Adulteration in milk and milk products and its public health significance. Health hazards caused by diseased dairy animals. Milkborne infections and intoxications. Infant milk food and its relation to disease. Microbiological standards for milk and milk products.
Food Hygieneâ€Sampling, collection, shipment and preparation of analysis of foods. Microbial evaluation of hygienic quality of food, spoilage microbes in foods, foodborne illness, collection and analysis of foods and specimens. Microbiological evaluation of fruits and vegetables, drinks, juice and confectionery products in relation to their safety and quality of products. Microbiology of potable water and evaluation for use in food industry. Public health significance of viruses through food and its prevention and control.
Sea food Hygieneâ€Description of fish and shellfish and other sea foods in relation to food industry. Marine environmental factors affecting sanitary quality of seafoods diseases transmitted through fish and other seafoods. Marine biotoxins, ciguatera, tetradotoxin, paralytic shellfish and scromboid poisoning.
Veterinary Surgery & Radiology [Code: VSR]
Current concepts in all species of domestic, livestock and poultry of inflammation, asepsis, antisepsis, in surgery and surgical bacteriology, sterilization, preoperative considerations, physiopathology of trauma, surgical stress and shock; blood and fluid therapy; postâ€operative care; phenomenon of wound healing; principles of tissue and organ transplantation.
Study of fracture dislocations, diseases of the bones, their symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, healing of fracture and factors influencing them, complication and their surgical treatments, repair of fractures of different bones of the body by internal and external fixation; various affections of the joints, their diagnosis and treatment.
Surgical management of affections of sinuses, nasal and boucle cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea and oesophagus in domestic animals. Affections of eye lids, lacrimal apparatus, orbit and its contents, cornea, conjunctiva, iris and lens and ocular therapeutics.
Surgical interventions in various affections of thoracic cavity viz. lung, pleura, mediastinal lymph glands and oesophagus. Various approaches for manipulating thoracic organs in large and small animals.
Disease of vascular system viz. aneurysm, avasular, necrosis, heart block and coronary occlusion, pericarditis, endocarditis patent ductus arteriosus, persistent foramen ovale, mitral and tricuspid stenosis and insufficiency; persistent aoritic arch, and open heart surgery.
Diagnosis and correction of various surgical affections of abdominal organs; traumatic reticulitis, abomasal displacement, impaction of omasum, intestinal obstruction, hernias and neoplasms; surgical treatment of cardiac and pyloric stenosis, gastric torsion, renal and urethral and rupture of urniary bladder in animals.
Relationship between conformation of the limbs, foot and its axis, lameness and allied surgical conditions of fore and hind limbs. Surgical anatomy of udder and teats of domestic animals in relation to different surgical affections.
Selection of various anesthetic and preanaesthetic agents; their effects on different systems of the body, administration of anesthesia in small and large animals; study of the various parameters used in the evaluation of patient during anaesthesia accidents, complication and their remedies; non brabiturate intrvaenous anesthetics; anaesthesia for special surgical procedures on gut, adrenals and heart, electronarcosis; and hypothermia.
Instrumentation, Xâ€ray machine, formulation of radiographic technique chart; artifacts and their prevention; special diagnostic radiographic densities in relation to clinical diagnosis; deep Xâ€ray unit, isotopic unit for radiation therapy, quality of radiation hazards on man, animals and plants and radiation protection; Cytological changes due to radiation (alphaâ€ Xâ€ray and gamma rays) in vivo cellular response following therapy, radiation as an immunosuppressive agent.
Veterinary Virology [Code: VVY]
History of Virology, classification and nomenclature of viruses, nature of viruses, morphology, size and shape, biophysical and biochemical characteristics of viruses, cultivation of viruses and their growth characteristics in cell culture, embryonated eggs and experimental animals.
Purification, concentration and preservation, replication of viruses, assay of viruses, interference, transformation, incomplete and latent viruses, viral immunity.
General principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases, serological test, epidemiology, methods of spread of viral infections, etiology, transmission and pathogenesis; viral vaccines, chemotherapy, prevention and control of viral diseases, latest trends in rapid viral diagnosis, statistical methods of virology.
RNA and DNA viruses: RNA virusesâ€Reoviruses, Arboviruses, Rotaviruses, Coronaviruses, Togaviruses, (Alphavirus, Flavi, virus, Mucosal disease virus group), Paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses, Retroviruses, Pricoronaviruses, Bunymweraviruses, Arenaviruses.
DNA Viruses: Pox Viruses, Herpesviruses, Andenoviruses, Papovaviruses, Parvoviruses.
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